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<h1 id="the-epsilon-merging-language-eml">The Epsilon Merging Language (EML)<a class="headerlink" href="#the-epsilon-merging-language-eml" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h1>
<p>The aim of EML is to contribute model merging capabilities to Epsilon. More specifically, EML can be used to merge an arbitrary number of input models of potentially diverse metamodels and modelling technologies. This section provides a discussion on the abstract and concrete syntax of EML, as well as its execution semantics. It also provides two examples of merging homogeneous and heterogeneous models.</p>
<h2 id="abstract-syntax">Abstract Syntax<a class="headerlink" href="#abstract-syntax" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h2>
<p>In EML, merging specifications are organized in modules (<em>EmlModule</em>). As displayed below, <em>EmlModule</em> inherits from <em>EtlModule</em>.</p>
<div class="mermaid mermaid-90">classDiagram
class MergeRule {
-name: String
-abstract: Boolean
-lazy: Boolean
-primary: Boolean
-greedy: Boolean
-guard: ExecutableBlock&lt;Boolean&gt;
-compare: ExecutableBlock&lt;Boolean&gt;
-do: ExecutableBlock&lt;Void&gt;
}
class Parameter {
-name: String
-type: EolType
}
class NamedStatementBlockRule {
-name: String
-body: StatementBlock
}
EolModule &lt;|-- ErlModule
EtlModule &lt;|-- EmlModule
Pre --|&gt; NamedStatementBlockRule
Post --|&gt; NamedStatementBlockRule
EtlModule &lt;|-- ErlModule
ErlModule -- Pre: pre *
ErlModule -- Post: post *
EmlModule -- MergeRule: rules *
MergeRule -- Parameter: left
MergeRule -- Parameter: right
MergeRule -- Parameter: target
MergeRule -- MergeRule: extends *</div>
<p>By extending <em>EtlModule</em>, an EML module can contain a number of transformation rules and user-defined operations. An EML module can also contain one or more merge rules as well as a set of <em>pre</em> and <em>post</em> named EOL statement blocks. As usual, <em>pre</em> and <em>post</em> blocks will be run before and after all rules, respectively.</p>
<p>Each merge rule defines a name, a left, a right, and one or more target parameters. It can also extend one or more other merge rules and be defined as having one or more of the following properties: abstract, greedy, lazy and primary.</p>
<h2 id="concrete-syntax">Concrete Syntax<a class="headerlink" href="#concrete-syntax" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h2>
<p>The listing below demonstrates the concrete syntax of EML merge-rules.</p>
<div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><code>(@abstract)?
(@lazy)?
(@primary)? (@greedy)?
rule &lt;name&gt;
merge &lt;leftParameter&gt;
with &lt;rightParameter&gt;
into (&lt;targetParameter&gt;(, &lt;targetParameter&gt;)*)?
(extends &lt;ruleName&gt;(, &lt;ruleName&gt;)*)? {
statementBlock
}
</code></pre></div>
<p><em>Pre</em> and <em>post</em> blocks have a simple syntax that consists of the identifier (<em>pre</em> or <em>post</em>), an optional name and the set of statements to be executed enclosed in curly braces.</p>
<div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><code>(pre|post) &lt;name&gt; {
statement+
}
</code></pre></div>
<h2 id="execution-semantics">Execution Semantics<a class="headerlink" href="#execution-semantics" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h2>
<h3 id="rule-and-block-overriding">Rule and Block Overriding<a class="headerlink" href="#rule-and-block-overriding" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h3>
<p>An EML module can import a number of other EML and ETL modules. In this case, the importing EML module inherits all the rules and pre/post blocks specified in the modules it imports (recursively). If the module specifies a rule or a pre/post block with the same name, the local rule/block overrides the imported one respectively.</p>
<h3 id="rule-scheduling">Rule Scheduling<a class="headerlink" href="#rule-scheduling" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h3>
<p>When an EML module is executed, the <em>pre</em> blocks are executed in the order in which they have been defined.</p>
<p>Following that, for each <em>match</em> of the established <em>matchTrace</em> the applicable non-abstract, non-lazy merge rules are executed. When all <em>matches</em> have been merged, the transformation rules of the module are executed on all applicable elements - that have not been merged - in the models.</p>
<p>Finally, after all rules have been applied, the <em>post</em> blocks of the module are executed.</p>
<h3 id="rule-applicability">Rule Applicability<a class="headerlink" href="#rule-applicability" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h3>
<p>By default, for a merge-rule to apply to a <em>match</em>, the <em>left</em> and <em>right</em> elements of the match must have a <em>type-of</em> relationship with the <em>leftParameter</em> and <em>rightParameter</em> of the rule respectively. This can be relaxed to a <em>kind-of</em> relationship by specifying that the merge rule is <em>greedy</em> (using the <em>\@greedy</em> annotation in terms of concrete syntax).</p>
<h3 id="source-elements-resolution">Source Elements Resolution<a class="headerlink" href="#source-elements-resolution" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h3>
<p>As with model transformation, in model merging it is often required to resolve the counterparts of an element of a source model into the target models. In EML, this is achieved by overloading the semantics of the <em>equivalents()</em> and <em>equivalent()</em> operations defined by ETL. In EML, in addition to inspecting the transformation trace and invoking any applicable transformation rules, the <em>equivalents()</em> operation also examines the <em>mergeTrace</em> (displayed in the figure below) that stores the results of the application of merge-rules and invokes any applicable (both lazy and non-lazy) rules.</p>
<p>Similarly to ETL, the order of the results of the <em>equivalents()</em> operation respects the order of the (merge or transform) rules that have produced them. An exception to that occurs if one of the rules has been declared as primary, in which case its results are prepended to the list of elements returned by equivalent.</p>
<div class="mermaid mermaid-60">classDiagram
class Merge {
-left: Object
-right: Object
-targets: Object[*]
}
EtlContext &lt;|-- EmlContext
EmlContext -- MatchTrace: matchTrace
MergeTrace -- EmlContext: mergeTrace
MergeTrace -- Merge: merges *
Merge -- MergeRule</div>
<h2 id="homogeneous-model-merging-example">Homogeneous Model Merging Example<a class="headerlink" href="#homogeneous-model-merging-example" title="Permanent link">&para;</a></h2>
<p>In this scenario, two models conforming to the Graph metamodel need to be merged. The first step is to compare the two graphs using the ECL module below.</p>
<pre class="prettyprint lang-ecl"><code>rule MatchNodes
match l : Left!Node
with r : Right!Node {
compare : l.label = r.label
}
rule MatchEdges
match l : Left!Edge
with r : Right!Edge {
compare : l.source.matches(r.source)
and l.target.matches(r.target)
}
rule MatchGraphs
match l : Left!Graph
with r : Right!Graph {
compare : true
}</code></pre>
<p>The <em>MatchNodes</em> rule in line 1 defines that two nodes match if they have the same label. The <em>MatchEdges</em> rule in line 8 specifies that two edges match if both their source and target nodes match (regardless of whether the labels of the edges match or not as it is assumed that there can not be two distinct edges between the same nodes). Finally, since only one instance of Graph is expected to be in each model, the <em>MatchGraphs</em> rule in line 16 returns <em>true</em> for any pair of Graphs.</p>
<p>Having established the necessary correspondences between matching elements of the two models, the EML specification below performs the merge.</p>
<pre class="prettyprint lang-eml"><code>import "Graphs.etl";
rule MergeGraphs
merge l : Left!Graph
with r : Right!Graph
into t : Target!Graph {
t.label = l.label + " and " + r.label;
}
@abstract
rule MergeGraphElements
merge l : Left!GraphElement
with r : Right!GraphElement
into t : Target!GraphElement {
t.graph ::= l.graph;
}
rule MergeNodes
merge l : Left!Node
with r : Right!Node
into t : Target!Node
extends GraphElements {
t.label = "c_" + l.label;
}
rule MergeEdges
merge l : Left!Edge
with r : Right!Edge
into t : Target!Edge
extends GraphElements {
t.source ::= l.source;
t.target ::= l.target;
}</code></pre>
<p>In line 3, the <em>MergeGraphs</em> merge rule specifies that two matching Graphs (<em>l</em> and <em>r</em>) are to be merged into one Graph <em>t</em> in the target model that has as a label, the concatenation of the labels of the two input graphs separated using 'and'. The <em>mergeNodes</em> rule In line 22 specifies that two matching Nodes are merged into a single Node in the target model. The label of the merged node is derived by concatenating the c (for common) static string with the label of the source Node from the left model. Similarly, the <em>MergeEdges</em> rule specifies that two matching Edges are merged into a single Edge in the target model. The source and target nodes of the merged Edge are set to the equivalents (::=) of the source and target nodes of the edge from the left model.</p>
<p>To reduce duplication, the <em>MergeNodes</em> and <em>MergeEdges</em> rules extend the abstract <em>MergeGraphElements</em> rule specified in line 13 which assigns the <em>graph</em> property of the graph element to the equivalent of the left graph.</p>
<p>The rules displayed above address only the matching elements of the two models. To also copy the elements for which no equivalent has been found in the opposite model, the EML module imports the ETL module below.</p>
<pre class="prettyprint lang-etl"><code>rule TransformGraph
transform s : Source!Graph
to t : Target!Graph {
t.label = s.label;
}
@abstract
rule TransformGraphElement
transform s : Source!GraphElement
to t : Target!GraphElement {
t.graph ::= s.graph;
}
rule TransformNode
transform s : Source!Node
to t : Target!Node
extends TransformGraphElement {
t.label = s.graph.label + "_" + s.label;
}
rule TransformEdge
transform s : Source!Edge
to t : Target!Edge
extends TransformGraphElement {
t.source ::= s.source;
t.target ::= s.target;
} </code></pre>
<p>The rules of the ETL module apply to model elements of both the Left and
the Right model as both have been aliased as Source. Of special interest
is the TransformNode rule in line 17 that specifies that non-matching nodes
in the two input models will be transformed into nodes in the target
model the labels of which will be a concatenation of their input graph
and the label of their counterparts in the input models.</p>
<p>Executing the ECL and EML modules on the exemplar models displayed in the following two figures creates the target model of the final figure.</p>
<p><div class="mermaid mermaid-40">graph LR
n1 --&gt; n2
n1 --&gt; n3
n3 --&gt; n5
n2 --&gt; n4</div>
Left model</p>
<p><div class="mermaid mermaid-50">graph LR
n1 --&gt; n8
n1 --&gt; n6
n8 --&gt; n6
n6 --&gt; n3</div>
Right model</p>
<p><div class="mermaid mermaid-90">graph LR
c_n1 --&gt; g1_n2
g1_n2 --&gt; c_n4
c_n1 --&gt; g2_n8
g2_n8 --&gt; g2_n6
c_n1 --&gt; g2_n6
c_n1 --&gt; c_n3
c_n3 --&gt; g1_n5
g2_n6 --&gt; c_n3</div>
Merged model</p>
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