blob: 3937244a932a81aa5c8ed8e9f15ca6eca720c3bb [file] [log] [blame]
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</head>
<body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:.5in;margin-left:
8.5pt;margin-top:14.2pt'>
<div class=Section1>
<p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'><span style='font-size:
10.0pt'>Copyright © 2007 International Business Machines Corp.</span><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<div align=right>
<table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%"
style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-padding-alt:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
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<td valign=top style='background:#0080C0;padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:white'>&nbsp;</span></b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<h1><img width=120 height=86 id="_x0000_i1025" src="../../../../images/Idea.jpg"
align=CENTER></h1>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<h1 align=center style='text-align:center'>Defining Generics with UML Templates</h1>
<h1 align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></h1>
<blockquote style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Summary</span></b><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><br style='mso-special-character:
line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p>Generics in Java have been around for a while but support for mapping
generically specified artifacts in UML to their Ecore representation is new to
UML2 2.1.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>This article will walk the
reader through the details of the mapping process with the end goal of
producing generically specified code. This article assumes some level of
familiarity with generics and is not intended as a tutorial in Java
generics.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p>This article might also be useful to readers who are only interested in how
generics can be specified with UML.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In
such cases, the reader can simply ignore the Ecore mapping and focus on the UML
and Java representations.</p>
<p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p><b>By James Bruck, IBM </b><br>
<st1:date Year="2007" Day="12" Month="9">September 12, 2007</st1:date> </p>
</blockquote>
<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>
<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>
</span></div>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h2>Glossary</h2>
<p>A few terms and abbreviations will be used throughout this document.</p>
<table class=MsoTableList4 border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid black 1.5pt;
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<p style='mso-yfti-cnfc:1'><b><span style='color:white'>Term<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
</td>
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<p style='mso-yfti-cnfc:1'><b><span style='color:white'>Definition<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=168 valign=top style='width:125.75pt;border-top:none;border-left:
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<p><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>UML specification<o:p></o:p></b></p>
</td>
<td width=684 valign=top style='width:513.0pt;border-top:none;border-left:
none;border-bottom:solid black 1.5pt;border-right:solid black 1.5pt;
mso-border-top-alt:solid black .75pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p>UML2 2.1. This refers to the latest version of the UML API which is based
on the UML 2.1.1 specification defined by OMG</p>
<p>The latest draft of the UML Superstructure Specification can be found at: <a
href="http://www.omg.org/docs/formal/07-02-05.pdf">http://www.omg.org/docs/formal/07-02-05.pdf</a></p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2>Introduction</h2>
<p>There are two main benefits in familiarizing yourself with UML templates: firstly,
you can express and communicate your ideas more accurately, and secondly, code
generated via conversion through Ecore will result in generically specified
Java.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Through a series of examples, this
article attempts to explain how templates in UML map to generics in Ecore and
Java.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p>Some concepts involving generics in UML do not map directly to Java (or
Ecore).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>In general, UML is more verbose
and requires a modeler to create more constructs to convey ideas that would
otherwise be more simply described in Java (or Ecore).</p>
<p>Consider template bindings for example: template bindings are constructs
that do not explicitly exist in Java (or Ecore).<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>The template binding concept in UML can be
considered to be a “merging” of <span class=SpellE>templateable</span> items
into the bound item where actual parameters are substituted for formal
parameters.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>More about this in the
section entitled “<a href="#_Some_UML_Basics">Some UML Basics</a>”.</p>
<p>Concrete classifiers that result from applying template bindings to a <span
class=SpellE>templated</span> classifier can also be considered an “artificial”
construct required by UML.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Such
additional classifiers are not needed when describing generics in Java (or
Ecore).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The examples listed later in
this document will explain these ideas in detail.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h2>Enhanced Ecore Profile</h2>
<p>The mapping from UML to Ecore as implemented in the UML2 2.1 API is intended
to be a lossless conversion.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Round
tripping from UML to Ecore and back again should produce the original UML
model.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>To achieve this lossless
conversion, concepts present in Ecore, but not in UML have been added to an
enhanced Ecore profile.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>The information
added to stereotyped items will be reapplied when converting back.</p>
<p>What UML does not capture that Ecore does:</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo2;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>Multiple
bounds on <span class=SpellE>ETypeParameters</span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The &lt;&lt;<span class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span>&gt;&gt;
stereotype has been created for this purpose.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo2;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>Upper
and lower bounds on <span class=SpellE>EGenericTypes</span>. (It should be
pointed out that it is possible to specify a single bound on type parameters in
UML via the <span class=SpellE>ClassifierTemplateParameter::constrainingClassifier</span>
property but this is currently a scalar value).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The &lt;&lt;<span class=SpellE>eGenericType</span>&gt;&gt; stereotype
has been created for this purpose.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo2;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>UML
requires “additional” classifiers to specify bound generic types.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>These need to be marked in order to remove
them when converting from UML to Ecore.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The &lt;&lt;<span class=SpellE>eGenericType</span>&gt;&gt; stereotype is
used as a marker so that conversion from UML to Ecore will result in dropping
elements with such stereotypes.</p>
<p>The subset of newly added stereotypes to the Ecore profile is shown in the
following diagram:</p>
<p><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600"
o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f"
stroked="f">
<v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/>
<v:formulas>
<v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/>
<v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/>
<v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/>
<v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/>
<v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/>
<v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/>
<v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/>
</v:formulas>
<v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/>
<o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/>
</v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:573.75pt;
height:230.25pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image001.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=765 height=307
src="article_files/image002.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027"><![endif]></p>
<p>While we are on the topic of differences between Ecore and UML we should
mention that UML has some ‘quirkiness’ in the area of templates.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In the current version of the UML
specification, UML has multiple actual parameters per formal parameter.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>It is unclear how multiple parameters could
be substituted for one formal parameter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The conversion process therefore considers only one actual per formal
parameter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>An <a
href="http://www.omg.org/issues/uml2-rtf.open.html#Issue9398">issue</a> for
this has been raised at OMG and should be resolved by the next revision of the
UML specification.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h2><a name="_Some_UML_Basics"></a>Some UML Basics</h2>
<p>UML allows users to model generics via templates and template bindings.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>Section 17.5 of the UML superstructure specification
describes all the constructs required to describe templates.</p>
<p>Quoting from the UML superstructure specification…</p>
<p><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A <span class=SpellE>TemplateableElement</span>
that has a template signature is a specification of a template.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>A template is a parameterized element that can
be used to generate other model elements using <span class=SpellE>TemplateBinding</span>
relationships.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span><span class=SpellE>TemplateableElements</span>
can have template signatures and template bindings.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Thus a <span class=SpellE>templateable</span>
element may be both a template and a bound element.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>The template parameters for the template
signature specify the formal parameters that will be substituted by actual
parameters in a binding.<o:p></o:p></i></p>
<p><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A template cannot be used in the same
manner as a non-template element of the same kind.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>The template element can only be used to
generate bound elements or as part of the specification of another
template.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>A bound element is an ordinary
element and can be used in the same manner as a non-bound element of the same
kind.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></i>This is an important point
since it means that a template class cannot be used as the type of a typed
element.</p>
<p><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ParameterableElement</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> is an element that can be exposed as a
formal template parameter for a template or specified as an actual parameter in
a binding of a template.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>A <span
class=SpellE>ParameterableElement</span> may be part of the definition of a
template parameter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In an element bound
to the template, any use of the template parameter will be substituted by the
use of the actual parameter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>If a <span
class=SpellE>ParameterableElement</span> is exposed as a template parameter,
then <span class=SpellE>parameterable</span> element is only meaningful within
the template.<o:p></o:p></i></p>
<p><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A <span class=SpellE>TemplateBinding</span>
represents a relationship between a <span class=SpellE>templateable</span>
element and a template.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>A template
binding specifies the substitutions of actual parameters for the formal
parameters of the template.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The presence
of a template binding relationship implies the same semantics as if the
contents of the template owning the target template signature were copied into
the bound element, substituting and elements exposed as formal template
parameters by the corresponding elements specified as actual parameters in the
binding.<o:p></o:p></i></p>
<p>The kinds of UML metatypes that can be <span class=SpellE>templateable</span>
are Classifier (Class, Component etc.), Operation, Package and less commonly,
Property, and <span class=SpellE>StringExpression</span>.</p>
<p>Neither Ecore nor Java has this template binding concept so having a firm
grasp of the UML metamodel is important if you are only familiar with generics
in Java.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h2>The Ecore Meta-Model</h2>
<p>The following diagram showing a subset of the Ecore metamodel (highlighting
generics) will be used as a reference when describing the UML to Ecore
mapping.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span></p>
<h2 style='margin-left:8.5pt;page-break-after:avoid'><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:18.0pt;font-family:"Tms Rmn"'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
id="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:420.75pt;height:411pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image003.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=561 height=548
src="article_files/image004.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1028"><![endif]></span></h2>
<p class=MsoCaption>Figure <!--[if supportFields]><span style='mso-element:
field-begin'></span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>SEQ Figure \* ARABIC
<span style='mso-element:field-separator'></span><![endif]--><span
style='mso-no-proof:yes'>1</span><!--[if supportFields]><span style='mso-element:
field-end'></span><![endif]-->: Ecore meta-model</p>
<p>With this metamodel in mind, we can mention several interesting points:</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span> correspond roughly to <span class=SpellE>TemplateParameter</span>
in UML.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> has no direct mapping to UML</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> can be specified by setting its <span
class=SpellE>eClassifier</span> or <span class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span>
property.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>EOperation</span> and <span class=SpellE>EClassifier</span> can be
parameterized with <span class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>Similarly, Operation and Classifier in UML
can have a template signature with parameters.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>EClass</span> can have <span class=SpellE>eGenericSuperTypes</span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>That is, <span class=SpellE>supertypes</span>
of some <span class=SpellE>EClass</span> can be represented by some <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>ETypedElement</span> can have some <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>
as a type.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo4;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span
class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span> can have bounds which are of type <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>.</p>
<p>If you wish to follow along with the examples and experiment on your own,
you should first enable the showing of generics for your Ecore model.</p>
<p>Showing of generics is enabled from the “Sample Ecore Editor” menu when the
Ecore editor is being used:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>From the
toolbar, select “<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Sample Ecore Editor
&gt; Show Generics</b>”.</p>
<p><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
id="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:110.25pt;height:114pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image005.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=147 height=152
src="article_files/image006.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1029"><![endif]></p>
<p>Further details on working with generics in EMF can be found at <a
href="http://wiki.eclipse.org/EMF_2.3_Generics">http://wiki.eclipse.org/EMF_2.3_Generics</a>.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h2>Case Studies</h2>
<p><img border=0 width=63 height=14 id="_x0000_i1030"
src="../../../../images/tip.gif"><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>If you
are familiar with generics in Java and you just want to discover how to create
the equivalent UML representation, I would recommend starting with the Ecore
representation of your generically specified model.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>Then, convert your Ecore model to UML.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The resulting UML model will have expanded
all bindings, and any required stereotypes will be applied.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The reason for starting with Ecore is that it
is much easier to specify generics using Ecore and requires fewer constructs.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:
Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>1.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>
</span></span></span><![endif]>In your development environment, ensure you have
the UML examples plug-ins installed.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:
Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>2.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>
</span></span></span><![endif]>Create an Ecore model using generics in
Ecore.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The resulting Ecore model should
closely match the Java representation.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:
Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>3.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>
</span></span></span><![endif]>From the sample Ecore editor, select the root
package of your Ecore model.</p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:
Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>4.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>
</span></span></span><![endif]>From the toolbar select “<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
normal'>Sample Ecore Editor &gt; Convert to UML Model …”</b></p>
<p><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Baby steps: Simple type parameter</h3>
</div>
<p>Consider a simple case where we define a generic class with one property of
some generic type.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<p><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1031" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:132.75pt;
height:60pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image007.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=177 height=80
src="article_files/image008.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1031"><![endif]></p>
<h4>Java</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>E&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>getMyProperty</span>();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>void&nbsp;</span></b><span class=SpellE><span
style='color:black'>setMyProperty</span></span><span style='color:black'>(E&nbsp;value);</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=598 valign=top style='width:448.8pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClassImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObjectImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>protected&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>E&nbsp;<span
class=SpellE>myProperty</span>;</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span>
</p>
</td>
<!-- end source code -->
</tr>
</table>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<p>The Ecore representation would look like the following:</p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=216 valign=top style='width:162.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:138pt;height:80.25pt;mso-position-horizontal:left;
mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;mso-position-vertical:top;
mso-position-vertical-relative:line' o:allowoverlap="f">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image009.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=184 height=107
src="article_files/image010.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1032"><![endif]></p>
</td>
<td width=612 style='width:459.0pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-left:
none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l11 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create a simple <span class=SpellE>EClass</span> with an <span
class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l11 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create an <span class=SpellE>EReference</span> whose type is an <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> with <span class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span>
set to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i>.</li>
</ol>
<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h4>UML</h4>
<p>As you can see, the UML representation is more verbose than the Ecore
representation. </p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo11;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>The
UML representation creates a template by constructing a template signature
owned by <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>MyClass</i></span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo11;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>The
signature in this case has one template parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>E</i>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo11;
tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Courier New";
mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>o<span
style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>The
template parameter directly owns another class <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>E</i> and uses that class as its <span class=SpellE>parametered</span>
element.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:294.75pt;
height:90.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image011.gif" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=393 height=121
src="article_files/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1033"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>      </span></p>
<p>The class <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> is the <span
class=SpellE>parametered</span> element that will be the focus of bindings when
we replace formal parameters with actual parameters.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>We can say that the template parameter
‘exposes’ the <span class=SpellE>parametered</span> element (<i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> in this case) as a formal
parameter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p>You may have also noticed the &lt;&lt;<span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>eTypeParameter</i></span>&gt;&gt;
stereotype.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The &lt;&lt;<span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>eTypeParameter</i></span>&gt;&gt;
stereotype contributes the concept of “bounds” to UML template parameters.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In Ecore, generic bound types allow one to
place constraints on the types of allowable substitutions.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>For example, one could express that
substitutions for the template parameter must extend some particular classifier
such as <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>MyClass</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>&lt;? <span class=GramE>extends</span> <span
class=SpellE>MyOtherClass</span>&gt;.</i><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  
</span>This will be explored more in the following examples.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Baby steps: Creating a generic type</h3>
</div>
<p>In a little more realistic example, we might have something like the
following.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<p><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1034"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:279pt;height:88.5pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image012.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=372 height=118
src="article_files/image013.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1034"><![endif]></span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
id="_x0000_i1035" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:255.75pt;height:93pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image014.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=341 height=124
src="article_files/image015.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1035"><![endif]></span></p>
<h4><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'>Java<o:p></o:p></span></h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>List&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>void&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>add(E&nbsp;x);</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>Iterator</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>iterator</span>();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}&nbsp;</span></code></span>
</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>Iterator</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>E&nbsp;next();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
class=SpellE><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>boolean</span></b></span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>&nbsp;</span></b><span class=SpellE><span
style='color:black'>hasNext</span></span><span style='color:black'>();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}&nbsp;</span></code></span>
</p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=216 valign=top style='width:162.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1036" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:139.5pt;height:182.25pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image016.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=186 height=243
src="article_files/image017.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1036"><![endif]></p>
</td>
<td width=612 style='width:459.0pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-left:
none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l14 level1 lfo14;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create an <span class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span> for the <span
class=SpellE>EClass</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List</i></li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l14 level1 lfo14;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create an <span class=SpellE>EOperation</span> <span class=GramE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>add(</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>)</i> with a parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>x</i>
of <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>E</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l14 level1 lfo14;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create another <span class=SpellE>EOperation</span> <span class=SpellE><span
class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>iterator</i></span></span><span
class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>(</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>) </i>of return type <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>&lt;E&gt;.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></i>Here the return type is an <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> whose <span class=SpellE>eClassifier</span>
is set to <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>&lt;E&gt;.</i><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>
has an <span class=SpellE>eTypeAgrument</span> (<span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>)
whose <span class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span> is set to <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l14 level1 lfo14;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator</i></span>
is similarly specified.</li>
</ol>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>UML</h4>
<p>The main elements in the UML representation are: a class called <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List</i>, a class called <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator</i></span> and a newly introduced
class called <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator_E</i></span>,
see below.</p>
<h4><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1037" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:297pt;
height:267.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image018.gif" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=396 height=357
src="article_files/image018.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1037"><![endif]></h4>
<p>You might be scratching your head about <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator_E</i></span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>This construct is required because the
class <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List</i> has an operation that
returns an <span class=SpellE>iterator</span> that is bound to the same element
passed as an argument to “List” itself.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  
</span>UML does not allow us to use templates as the type of an <span
class=GramE>element,</span> therefore we need to create a new bound class: <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator_E</i></span>.</p>
<p>The template parameter substitution for <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Iterator_<span class=GramE>E</span></i></span><span
class=GramE><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>above</span> has the
following binding:</p>
<p><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1038"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:288.75pt;height:24.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image019.gif" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=385 height=33
src="article_files/image019.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1038"><![endif]>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></p>
<p>The formal template parameter for <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>Iterator</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>&lt;E&gt;</i> is
bound to the actual parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> of <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List</i>.</p>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Basics: Binding to a generic class</h3>
</div>
<p>Let’s put together some of the basic ideas we have already explored.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In this example, <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>&lt;E&gt;</i> is a generic array list whose super type is the generic <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List&lt;E&gt;.</i><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In UML we require the creation of the
concrete type <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List_E</i></span>
with its bindings set up.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In addition, <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>TestClass</i></span> has a
property which is an <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span>
of Cars.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>Again, we create a new class <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i>_<i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Car</i></span> with bindings set up to the
class <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Car</i>.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<h4><span style='font-weight:normal'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1039"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:740.25pt;height:221.25pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image020.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=987 height=295
src="article_files/image021.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1039"><![endif]></span></h4>
<h4>Java</h4>
<p>The <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>TestClass</i></span>
class:</p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>TestClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>ArrayList</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>getMyCars</span>();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}&nbsp;</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>TestClassImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObjectImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>TestClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>protected&nbsp;</span></b><span class=SpellE><span
style='color:black'>ArrayList</span></span><span style='color:black'>&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;<span
class=SpellE>myCars</span>;</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span>
</p>
</td>
<!-- end source code -->
</tr>
<!-- start Java2Html link -->
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p>The <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span>
class:</p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>ArrayList</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>List&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:
"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}&nbsp;</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>ArrayListImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>ListImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>ArrayList</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;E&gt;&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:
"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>protected&nbsp;</span></b><span class=SpellE><span
style='color:black'>ArrayListImpl</span></span><span style='color:black'>()&nbsp;{</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>super</span></b><span style='color:black'>();</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>}</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>5</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}&nbsp;</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1040" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:137.25pt;height:101.25pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image022.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=183 height=135
src="article_files/image023.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1040"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>      </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1041"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:127.5pt;height:76.5pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image024.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=170 height=102
src="article_files/image025.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1041"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>        </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1042"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:124.5pt;height:51pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image026.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=166 height=68
src="article_files/image027.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1042"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>        </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1043"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:146.25pt;height:53.25pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image028.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=195 height=71
src="article_files/image029.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1043"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>     </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1044"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:69pt;height:14.25pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image030.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=92 height=19
src="article_files/image031.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1044"><![endif]></p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>UML</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1045" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:279.75pt;height:78pt' o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this"
o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image032.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=373 height=104
src="article_files/image033.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1045"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>             </span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1046"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:280.5pt;height:65.25pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image034.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=374 height=87
src="article_files/image035.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1046"><![endif]></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1047" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:281.25pt;height:102pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image036.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=375 height=136
src="article_files/image037.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1047"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
id="_x0000_i1048" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:273pt;height:65.25pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image038.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=364 height=87
src="article_files/image039.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1048"><![endif]><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>     </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1049"
type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:118.5pt;height:15pt' o:bordertopcolor="this"
o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this">
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image040.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=158 height=20
src="article_files/image041.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1049"><![endif]></p>
<p><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span>
is the specialization of the concrete <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>List_E</i></span> class where the formal template parameter <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List</i>
is substituted for the actual <span class=SpellE>parameterable</span> element <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> of <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>These are the substitutions for the binding
of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List_E</i></span>: </p>
<p><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1050" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:292.5pt;
height:28.5pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image042.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=390 height=38
src="article_files/image043.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1050"><![endif]></p>
<p>The class <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList_Car</i></span>
substitutes the actual parameter Car for the exposed template parameter of <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>E</i> of <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList</i></span>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>These are the substitutions for the <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ArrayList_Car</i></span>:</p>
<p><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1051" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:289.5pt;
height:33pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image044.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=386 height=44
src="article_files/image045.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1051"><![endif]></p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Basics: Operation with template
parameter </h3>
</div>
<p>In UML, operations are <span class=SpellE>templateable</span> elements.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>In this next example we will have a look at
adding template parameters to an operation.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The operation will have a template parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>T</i>, and will return elements of type <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>T</i>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The operation will also
have a parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>p1</i> of type <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>T</i>.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1052" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:226.5pt;height:78pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image046.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=302 height=104
src="article_files/image047.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1052"><![endif]></p>
<h4>Java</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>&lt;T&gt;&nbsp;T&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>someOperation</span>(T&nbsp;p1);</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClassImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObjectImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>MyClass</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>&lt;T&gt;&nbsp;T&nbsp;<span
class=SpellE>someOperation</span>(T&nbsp;p1)&nbsp;{</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:#3F7F5F'>//...</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>}</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>5</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span><tt><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></tt></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=240 valign=top style='width:180.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1053" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:153pt;height:79.5pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image048.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=204 height=106
src="article_files/image049.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1053"><![endif]></p>
</td>
<td width=767 style='width:575.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-left:
none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;tab-stops:list .5in'><span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>MyClass</i></span>
has an <span class=SpellE>EOperation</span> called <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>someOperation</i></span>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
<span class=SpellE>EOperation</span> <span class=SpellE>someOperation</span>
has an <span class=SpellE>ETypeParameter</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>T</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
<span class=SpellE>EOperation</span> has a parameter <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>p1</i> whose type is an <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> whose <span class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span>
is <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>T</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
<span class=SpellE>EOperation</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>has an <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> as its type, whose <span
class=SpellE>eTypeParameter</span> is <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>T</i>.</li>
</ol>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>UML</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial Unicode MS"'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
id="_x0000_i1054" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:311.25pt;height:90.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image050.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=415 height=121
src="article_files/image051.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1054"><![endif]></span></p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Basics: Bound operation parameters </h3>
</div>
<p>In this example we show an operation with two parameters that are lists of
cars.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>As you might have guessed, the UML
version will require an extra bound class.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1055" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:450.75pt;height:255pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image052.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=601 height=340
src="article_files/image053.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1055"><![endif]></p>
<h4>Java</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;interface&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>MyClass2&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObject</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>void&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>op1(List&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;p1,&nbsp;List&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;p2);</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:gray'>1</span></code><code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>MyClass2Impl&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObjectImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>MyClass2&nbsp;{</span></span></code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;void&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>op1(List&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;p1,&nbsp;List&lt;Car&gt;&nbsp;p2)&nbsp;{</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:#3F7F5F'>//...&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span
style='color:black'>}</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>5</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=228 valign=top style='width:171.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1056" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:154.5pt;height:102.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image054.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=206 height=137
src="article_files/image055.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1056"><![endif]></p>
</td>
<td width=779 style='width:584.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-left:
none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l0 level1 lfo20;tab-stops:list .5in'>We create
an operation with parameter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>p1</i>.</li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l0 level1 lfo20;tab-stops:list .5in'>Parameter<i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> p1</i> has as its type an <span
class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> whose <span class=SpellE>eClassifier</span>
is <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List&lt;E&gt;.</i></li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l0 level1 lfo20;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
<span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>p1</i> has a type argument (<span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>)
whose <span class=SpellE>eClassifier</span> is set to <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Car</i>.</li>
</ol>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<h4>UML</h4>
<h4><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1057" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:5in;
height:102.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image056.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=480 height=137
src="article_files/image057.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1057"><![endif]></h4>
<p>The only important thing to point out here is that the bound <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List_Car</i></span> is not
duplicated in the UML representation. The bound <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List_Car</i></span> is used in the context
of MyClass2.</p>
<p><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>
<h3 style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:
0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'>Advanced: Wildcards (specifying upper
and lower bounds on parameters)</h3>
</div>
<p>It is possible to specify wildcards when using parameters in Ecore and
Java.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>Wildcards are represented <span
class=GramE>by <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>?</b>.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span><span class=GramE>The <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
normal'>?</b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'> </b><span
class=GramE>stands</span> for an unknown type.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>It is possible to specify upper and lower bounds on such wildcards.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>When we talk about bounds, we refer to the
ability to specify that bindings to a generic type parameter must either be the
super type of some classifier or extend some classifier.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>In this way, tighter restrictions can be
placed on acceptable bindings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In
addition to tightening restrictions, upper bounds (extends) are particularly
useful for ensuring that substitutions will have features that are required by
the template for its behavior.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>For
example, one might have <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List&lt;E extends
Comparable&gt;</i> because the list actually needs to be able to compare E’s
using the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Comparable::<span
class=GramE>compareTo</span></i></span><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'>(</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>…)</i> operation.</p>
<h4>Visually</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1058" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:471pt;height:405.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image058.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=628 height=541
src="article_files/image059.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1058"><![endif]></p>
<h4>Java</h4>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='background:#F3F3F3;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:480;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=590 valign=top style='width:6.15in;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p><code><span style='color:gray'>1</span>&nbsp;<b><span style='color:#7F0055'>public&nbsp;class&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>MyClass3Impl&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span
class=SpellE><span style='color:black'>EObjectImpl</span></span><span
style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><b><span style='color:#7F0055'>implements&nbsp;</span></b><span
style='color:black'>MyClass3&nbsp;{</span></code><span style='font-family:
"Courier New"'><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>2</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>protected&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>List&lt;?&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>extends&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>Car&gt;&nbsp;<span
class=SpellE>someReference</span>;</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>3</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:white'>&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>protected&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>List&lt;?&nbsp;</span><b><span
style='color:#7F0055'>super&nbsp;</span></b><span style='color:black'>Car&gt;&nbsp;<span
class=SpellE>anotherReference</span>;</span></code><br>
<code><span style='color:gray'>4</span>&nbsp;<span style='color:black'>}</span></code></span></p>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h4>Ecore</h4>
<table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
<td width=276 valign=top style='width:207.1pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1059" type="#_x0000_t75"
style='width:194.25pt;height:114.75pt'>
<v:imagedata src="article_files/image060.png" o:title=""/>
</v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=259 height=153
src="article_files/image061.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1059"><![endif]></p>
</td>
<td width=576 style='width:6.0in;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-left:
none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
<ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l8 level1 lfo23;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create an <span class=SpellE>EReference</span> for <span class=SpellE><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>someReference</i></span><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>.</i></li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l8 level1 lfo23;tab-stops:list .5in'>We
create an <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span> for the type of <span
class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>someReference</i></span>
whose <span class=SpellE>eClassifier</span> is set to <i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>List&lt;E&gt;</i></li>
<li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l8 level1 lfo23;tab-stops:list .5in'>The
generic type of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>someReference</i></span>
has an <span class=SpellE>eTypeArgument</span> (an <span class=SpellE>EGenericType</span>)
whose upper bound is set to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Car</i>.</li>
</ol>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>